Aikido General

AikidoThe way of harmony with ki
BudoMartial way
BushidoThe way of the warrior
HaraThe abdomen, stomach, your centre/stability, One's centre of mass
KiSpirit, Energy
ZanshinReadiness, awareness, preparedness

An expression of appreciation

Domo arigato Thank you (formal)
Domo arigato gozaimasuThank you very much (very formal) (for something that is happening)
Domo arigato gozaimas'taThank you very much (very formal) (for something that has just ended)
Onegaishimasu Please (when asking for something, usually as in Please lets practice together)

Ranks in Aikido

O-senseiLiterally, ``Great Teacher,'

A martial arts title 'Head of the way', (Morihei Ueshiba till 1969), Kisshomaru Ueshiba from 1969 to 1999, (Moriteru Ueshiba from 1999)
Mitsuteru Ueshiba will be next succesor

ShihanA formal title meaning, approximately, ``master instructor' ranked sixth dan or above.There are currently (01.01.2010) no teachers-Japanese or non-Japanese-authorized under the International Regulations to use the title 'Shihan'
ShidoinA formal title meaning, approximately, ``instructor'' ranked fifth dan and below
Fukushidoin A formal title meaning, approximately, ``assistant instructor''
Kudan9th dan (black belt)
Hachidan8th dan (black belt)
Shichidan7th dan (black belt)
Rokudan6th dan (black belt)
Godan5th dan (black belt)
Yodan4th dan (black belt)
Sandan3rd dan (black belt)
Nidan2nd dan (black belt)
Shodan1st dan (black belt)
YudanshaBlack belt, or dan holder
Ikkyu1st kyu (Brown belt)
Nikyu2nd kyu (Blue belt)
Sankyu3rd kyu (Green belt)
Yokyu4th kyu (Orange belt)
Gokyu5th kyu (Yellow belt)
Rokkyu6th kyu (White belt)
AikidokaOne who participates in aikido
UkeOne who receives the technique
Tori,NageOne who applies the technique

The Practice Hall

Hombu dojoA term used to refer to the central dojo of an organization
DojoTraining hall, Literally place of the Way
TatamiThe mat on whitch a martial art is practiced
KamizaUpper seat (focal point of the dojo, indentified by the display of Master Uyeshiba's picture or framed sample of calligraphy, instructor side)
ShimozaLower seat (opposite of instructor)
JosekiUpper side (advanced student side, left side of the kamiza)
ShimosekiLower side (the right side of kamiza)

The Uniform

Gi (keikogi)Practice suit
HakamaDivided skirt worn over the gi, usually worn by black-belt ranks
ObiA belt
TabiJapanese sock-slippers used in dojo
ZoriJapanese sandals for use outside dojo


Kamae Ready posture
Hijime Start, begin or go
MokusoClose the eyes, meditation
SuwatteSit down
Tatte Raise
YameStop, End
Rei Bow
Shinzen ni rei Bow to shrine
Sensei ni rei Bow to sensei
Joseki ni rei Bow to the high section of the dojo
Otagai ni reiBow to each other
RitsureiWhen you step on the mat, bow slightly in the direction of the kamiza (in normal standing natural posture)
Hai I understand

Practice with a partner

Tachi wazaStanding technique
Suwari wasaSitting technique
Tanto doriKnife technique
Zagi-handachi Both partners kneeling
Hanmi-handachi wazaSitting / standing technique
Te wasaHand technique
Nage-wazaThrowing or Projection techniques
Kansetsu-waza Joint / Pining techniques
Atemi-wazaStriking / hitting techniques
Hitori-waza "invisible partner practice "
Jiyu-wazaFree-style attack and defence with 2 or more Ukes
Ninnin doriPractice with 2 Ukes
Sannin dori Practice with 3 Ukes
RandoriFreeform attack and response
UkemiBreak falls
Mai ukemiForward fall / roll
Ushiro ukemiBackward fall / roll
ShikkoKnee walking
Tsugi-ashi " Glide " walking
Chidori-ashi A cross-over (zig zag) step
Taisabaki A circular movement of blending with an attacker (Irimi-tenkan)
Kaiten Turning on the spot 180, feet remaining in place
IrimiTo enter. Refers to nage's movement in relation to uke.
OmoteIn front of. Refers to the positional relationship of nage in regard to uke. Nage has moved in front of uke.
Tenkan Circular motion - turning to the outside of an opponent
Ura To the rear of. Refers to the positional relationship of nage in regard to uke. Nage has moved behind uke.
TenshinA movement where nage retreats 45 degrees away from the attack
Torifune Boat rowing exercise
Ikkio shihogiri4-direction turning
Tai-no-henkoBasic blending (tenkan) exercise
KI-no-nagareTai-no-henko as a flowing movement- or any technique
Irimi (omote) Entering across the front of your partner
Hi-shin-undo Back stretch


KamaePosture, stance.
Tachi Standing
KeizaKneeling, but up on the toes
Iai (Tate) hizaKneeling on one calf
Seiza Formal sitting position, kneeling on both calves
HanmiHalf forward stance (posture in which one foot is advanced)
Ai-hanmi Opponents face each other in same postures
Gyaku-hanmi Opponents face each other in different postures
Hidari-hanmi Left natural posture
Migi-hanmiRight natural posture
Hanmi-hantachiOne person is sitting and the other standing
Hitoemi Equal stance, feet parallel forward
Iai goshiHips lowered, stable position
Mai-aiCorrect distance between opponents
Migi Right
Hidari Left
Omotearea inside or to the front of uke's leading hand
Uraarea outside or behind uke's leading hand
Ushiro Rearward, behind

Hand Holds

Katate doriOne hand holding one hand
Ai-hanmi katatedorihand grab left wrist with your left hand
Gyaku-hanmi katatedoriTo grasp with one's hand reversed; to grasp and opponents right wrist with your left hand
Gyaku Reverse, opposite, inverted
Hiji dori Elbow grab
Sode dori Sleeve grab
Kata dori Shoulder hold
Mune doriOne or two hand lapel hold (chest)
Morote doriTwo hands holding one hand
Ryote dori Two hands holding two hands
Katatekosa-dori Crosshand wristhold
Ryokata dori Grabbing both shoulders
Ryokatate dori Grabbing both wrists
Katatekosa dori Crosshand wristhold
Ushiro tekubi doriWrist grab from the back
Ushiro ryote doriGrabbing both wrists from the back
Ushiro ryokata doriGrabbing both shoulders from the back
Ushiro hiji-dori Hold elbows from behind
Ushiro eri-dori Neck grab from the back (usually the collar )
Ushiro kubi shimeRear choke
Ushiro katate dori kubishimeNeck choke from behind with one hand and the other hand holding at the wrist
Munedakishime Bear hug usually from behind - ushiro


Atemi Strike to a vital points of the body
Tsuki Straight thrust (punch), esp. to the midsection
Chudan-zuki A punch to the abdominal region
Gedan-zukiDownward punch
Jodan-zuki Upper strike
Oi-zuki A step-punch
Shomen uchiOverhead strike to the head
Yokomen uchiDiagonal strike to the side of the head
Gyaku-zuki Punching with the rear hand
Gyaku-uchi Any reverse strike
Kaeshi-zukiCounter thrus
Katate-uchiOne-handed strike
Men-uchiStrike to head
Mune tsuki Thrust toward knot on obi
Oi-zuki Uchi Inside strike
Yoko-uchi A side ward strike Holds
Chudan Middle
ShomenStraight ahead
Yoko Horizontal, to the side
Tegatana The " cutting " edge of the hand


Ikkyo 1. principle = oshi taoshi
Nikyo2. principle = kotemaki
Sankyo3. principle = shibori-kime
Yonkyo 4. principle
Gokyo 5. principle, used where uke is holding a knife
Rokkyo 6. principle = waki-katame or ude-hishigi, Lock applied against the elbow
Nanakyo 7. principle = Yonkyo applied to back of wrist
Hakyo 8. principle = kote-ori-kakae-kimi, kuji-dori = Nikyo in which his elbow is in your armpit and his hand is pulled forward; Pinning their hand with your foot
Kukyo9. principle = Inverted nanakyo

Pins (Osae wasa )

Ikkajo osaeArm Pinning, ude osae
Nikajo osaeForearm Rotating, kote mawashi
Sankajo osaeForearm Twisting, kote hineri
Yonkajo osaeWrist Pinning, tekubi osae
Gokyo osae Arm Stretching, ude nobashi
Hiji-shime-osae(overarm elbow lock)
Kata-gatamaShoulder lock
Hiji osaeElbow control


Kote gaeshiWrist turn-out - outwward wrist twist
Irimi nageEntering body throw (" 20 year technique ")
SukumenBreath throw (underhead)
Shiho nageFour direction throw
Tenchi nageHeaven and earth throw
Kaiten nageRotary throw
Koshi nageHip throw
Mai otoshiCorner drop from the back
Sumi otoshiCorner drop
Kokyu nageBreath throw
Ude-garamielbow lock and throw
Juji nage, juji garamiArm entwining throw (" No. 10 throw ", since the arms form the japanese sign for 10 " + ". arms crossed, elbows locked)
Uchi-kaiten nageRotary throw inside (from the front)
Soto-kaiten nageRotary throw outside (from the side)
Kokyu hobreathing method morotetori kokyu nage or ryotemochi kokynage ude-oroshi irimi
Kokyu-ryokuBreathing power
Aiki otoshibody drop, entering more deeply and picking up uke's off-side leg
Maki otoshinage ends up down on one knee, having thrown uke over nage's shoulder
Suni gaeshicorner throw
Tai-atari uchi otoshifrom yokomen-uchi, entering and blocking.,uke gets thrown backwards
Ushiro udoroshipull down from behind
Kokyu dosaBreath-power movement (from seiza)
Ganseki otoshiArm bar with elbow braced over shoulder
KatagatameA variation of Kaiten nage where you lock your opponents houlder and bring him directly to the ground in a shoulder lock
Aikinage" harmony " of throwing an opponent with no pre -control techniques


KatanaJapanese sword
BokkenWooden sword
JoWooden stick (staff)
Tanto-dori Defence against a knife (tanto)
Tachi-dori Defence against a sword (bokken)
Jo-doriDefence against a staff (Jo)
Bokken Suburi the 7 basic sword cuts
Bokken awasePartner blending practice
Bokken kumitachi " kata " practice with the partner
Jo suburi The 20 basic Jo movements
Jo kataThe 13, 31, 25 & 22 count katas
Kumi-JoJo against Jo - blending practice
Ken-tai-Jo Sword against Jo partner practice


  1 ich 20ni jyu       (2 + 10)
  2 ni 21ni jyu ich     (2 + 10 + 1)   
  3 san 44yon jyu shi (4 + 10 + 4)  
  4 shi or yon 79nana jyu kyu (7 + 10 + 9)  
  5 go 99kyu jyu kyu
  6 roku 100hyaku
  7 shichi or nana  101hyaku ich
  8 hachi 147ichi hyaku yon jyu shichi
  9 kyu 201ni hyaku ich
10   jyu 658roku hyaku go jyu hachi
11 jyu ich    1000sen
12 jyu ni     2445ni sen yon hyaku yon jyu go
13 jyu san 3456san zen yon hyaku go jyu roku
14 jyu shi 10000  man
15 jyu go 45789  yon man go sen nana hyaku hachi jyu kyu 
16 jyu roku 600roppyaku (not a roku hyaku)
17 jyu shichi 800happyaku (not a hachi hyaku)
18 jyu hachi 8000hassen (not a hachi sen)
19 jyu kyu

Use " shi " (4) or " shichi " (7) only for the last digit in the number
" sen " becomes " zen " after a voiced consonant " n " e.g. 3456

Shogun - The Japanese Language, Culture and Traditions